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Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience 代寫

    Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience
    1.       General Introduction of Occupational Therapy
    Occupational therapy (OT) refers to the implemented treatment process for development, rehabilitant as well as maintaining everyday well-being and work capabilities. Occupational therapy aims at the patients who suffer from physical and mental health. Occupational therapy is operated and conducted on the basis of patients, which also puts emphasis on the development procedure to the predicted accomplishment(McColl et al. 2003). Occupational therapy invariably involves with interventions, which is in contrast to the conventional medical treatment, concentrates on adjustment to the environment, modifying the assignment, partnership education. The significance of all the tactics of OT lies in the attempts to motivate participation and performance of healthy daily routines.
     Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience 代寫
    2.1 The Type of Clients the Organization Offers Services to
    My volunteer occupational therapy work is in a nursing home, where I spent approximately two week’s time with the senior elders. There are 32 elders living in the nursing home, with 7 of them over 90, 15 aging from 80 to 90, and 8 from 70 to 80 years old. All the elders stay at the nursing home both at weekdays and on weekends. About 20 nurses and employees take turns in taking care of the elders for their bathing, clothing and eating. Most of the elders have some degrees of dysfunctions in moving and caring for themselves.
    2.2List of the Provided Services
    Every day, the nursing staff will help the elders finish three meals. There is a nursing home owned kitchen in the organization where nutrition is well managed to complement for the elders. Calcium is enhanced in the food and the food is chopped neatly and cooked softly to help chewing and digestion.
    In the morning, the nursing staff normally takes the elders into the near garden or woods to stretch their bodies. Some elders may have to take the wheelchairs, while others just walk with or without the facilities. Fresh morning air, adequate sunlight and moderate exercise will bring countless benefits for increasing the occupational therapy for the elders. Afternoon time is generally for some rehabilitation exercise or pastime. Some elders may suffer from previous bone problems and chronic heart and blood diseases as well as memory loss. The rehabilitation exercise target on the exercise of muscles and bones, enhancement of memory and adding intellectual activities like reading newspapers and stories and listening to music. Evening time is generally quiet for them. The most common activity is watching TV or movies or do some reading. The intensity of such activity will not be as strong as those in the morning.
    2.3The Types of Activities I undertook
    My volunteer experience normally starts in the afternoon. I have helped as a nursing assistant to arrange the elders’ afternoon activities for occupational therapy. I mainly helped the elders with drawing. Drawing is not only an easy skill to be acquired, but also it can enrich the mental and psychological life. Abundance in mental need will help achieve the third level need of Maslow’s theory. Satisfaction of the sense of love and respect will set up foundation for higher need.
    I used to teach the elders to draw something to help them memorize some basic stuff. For example, I would teach them to draw some tablet bottles to let them memorize taking necessary vitamins every day. Apart from this, I taught the elders to draw some food with abundant nutrition to help them be impressive of healthy lifestyle. Also drawing some family pictures can remind them of their younger time, which can be an energetic and positive memory of their lifetime.
    2.4 The Aspects that I Found the Most Challenging During My Volunteer Work
    Teaching the elders needs patience. Even though most of them acquired basic drawing skills, but kind of memory loss may inhibit them from moving ahead and making progress. The eventual consequence might be the frustration. Thus extra attention is needed for teaching the elders memorizing the skills of drawing certain objectives. I have met with the contraction phenomenon which exerted great trouble in holding the pen steadily.
    During the entire process, I delicately sensed the feelings change of the elders. Because when they became despaired about painting and gradually lost interest in keeping this habit, coping with their emotions would have been an even tougher problem, meanwhile painting would have lost it meaning in occupational therapy for elders.
    Drawing from professional occupational therapy is also a new challenge in front of me. Simply teaching of drawing might fail to obtain the professional techniques and I wouldn’t make any progress in improving my occupational therapy treatment skills. No improvement sometimes means setback in my future career development, which violates my predicted goals. A good command of occupational therapy skills will be a big part in later work positions.
    3.1Occupational Treatment Approaches for Elders
    For extrinsic dimension, occupational treatment targets on housing safety issues to ensure the security of outer environment. Replacement and repairmen of furniture and building facilities, which may include filling holes of floors, stabilizing shaking obstacles, controlling pests and lower kitchen devices, can decrease the potential danger of fall and Promote movement.
    The individual factors of intrinsic dimension include self care, communication and medication. And the occupational treatment approaches may include identifying concerns, observe performance, training for basic device utility as well as education on medication strategies. The intrinsic physiological factors include strength and balance, depression and pain. Accordingly, the occupational treatment can deal with participant’s exercise to estimate their interest in tai chi and modify visits from tai chi teachers and estimate the perspiration for other exercise formation. Prevention of depression and loneliness is also of great importance since social isolation, healthcare requests and accommodation concerns will be placed greater emphasis in elders than ever before. For the related therapies, numerous settlements may be brought up. When implementing one of them, estimation and comparison is needed to choose the optimal solution. Occupational therapy handles the pain issue better than conventional medication, OT provides pain management strategies like topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, distractions, mobility and heat(Hocking 2004).
    3. 2 Ethical and Legal Responsibilities
    The primary difference is the evaluation of the patient’s ability to perform ordinary “occupations” or activities, while in comparison the physical therapy focuses on improving mobility. For example physical therapy treats hip fracture targeting the patient’s ability to walk and move. Occupational therapy, instead, suggests bathtub grab bars and a raised toilet seat to increase security and independence(Douglas 2004).
    Occupational therapy, which was first proposed by American Occupational Therapy Association, merits medical work ethic from science and medicine perspectives. At the same time, OT brings out challenges to modern mainstream medical treatment. Occupational therapy embraces a more extensive horizon for OT not only acknowledges the significance of physical etiology, but also combines treatment from social, economic, and biological angles. For example, , , , ,  as well as social cooperation.
    3.3 Interactions and Communications of Occupation Therapy
    The term of refers to the functions as the basic principle, which can be used to assess health and ability that employs means of illustrating how influencing factors affect one’s function. In the first place,  establishes the foundation for the occupational therapy to be worldwide accepted. What’s more, the  supplies occupational therapists with professional and systematic expertise for their future career in health care organization. In addition, the  implements the occupational therapy by analyzing environmental and individual ingredients. It is of enormous significance to regard personal, environmental and occupational factors to come up with a working intervention protocol. The last but not least advantage of  situates in the acknowledgement of cultural differences(Whiteford & Fossey 2002).
    3.4 Occupational Therapy Competence
    Occupational therapy establishes a systematic approach in information an individual of art and like and professional knowledge in conserving the strength and energy of the elders’ joints and also attempting to protect the function of the systems of the human being. Theoretically, the occupational therapy can be of enormous help to the elders who suffer from certain physical states which lead to a decreased range of motion. Generally speaking, the patients are treated through stretching exercises and in the therapy treatment, many props like sponges with handles are used.
    Another situation where occupational therapy for elderly group demonstrates useful is assist of elder patients with amputated limbs learning how to put their prosthetic limbs on and take them off. It can also teach them how to take care of both their body as well as all kinds of adaptive equipment. When it comes to the vision problems of the elders, occupational therapy will help them gain systematic knowledge to eschew glare and focus on increasing the perceived color contrast of the environment. As far as memory impairments among elder suffers is concerned, teaching them how to do simpler and more remarkable organization as well as reminder utility is demonstrating enormous benefits, in order to stimulate and manage of all daily activities they are likely to take part in(Kielhofner 2008).
    4.1 Critical Reflection of Volunteer Experience
    People tend to lack certain degrees of information about the difference of physical therapy and occupational therapy. It’s ridiculous to draw the conclusion that the principles of occupational therapy and those of physical therapy are similar. In short, physical therapy focuses on increasing individual moving capabilities after going through a debilitating injury or illness. In comparison, occupational therapy makes effort in educating the elders to get over the impairments they have and perform their daily activities independently.
    Occupational therapy can help seniors with disabilities from the following waysL Polatajko 2001)
    1)Educate a person with arthritis to protect the joints and conserve energy.
    2)Help a person with limited range-of-motion to do stretching exercises and use adaptive equipment such as a sponge with a long handle
    3)Train a person with an amputation to put a prosthesis on and off
    4)Help a person with low vision adapt the environment to avoid glare and increase color contrast
    5)Help a person with memory impairment organize and label draws and cabinets
    4.2 My Accumulated Competences of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Analysis
    Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory aims at individual motivation, which was first proposed by . The five categories of need theory are based on the exploration of humans' inborn curiosity. This theory, along with  analysis, is useful in guiding occupational therapy. Five terms interpreting the Maslow’s theory include Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence needs, which reflect how human motivations evolve.
    4.2.1Physiological needs
    Physiological needs are the basic request of individual survival. The physiological system of human may not work appropriately once this level of need failed to be satisfied. Physiological needs are considered to be the most crucial requirement and should be satisfied in the first place.
    Air, water, food and energy is needed to maintain  reactions for survival in all living creatures with humans for no exception. Clothing and accommodation functions as essential protection shield. Once maintaining a balanced birth rate, the sexual desirability can be modified by the instinct and the degree it is met.
    4.2.2Safety needs
    With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs becomes dominance which directly changes the survival behavior. Under the extreme circumstances of war, natural disaster, ,  where physical safety can not be ensured, people present great tendency for experiencing psychological reactions of  or . When lack of financial safety especially during economic crisis and out of job period, related behaviors give way for preventing the individual from unilateral authority, savings expenditure, selecting proper insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations and the like. The safety needs can be categorized into individual security, financial security, health and well-being, online security and privacy protection.
    4.2.3Love and belonging
    When the first two levels of needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs - interpersonal and involves feelings of  will play a big role. The third need is of greater significance in children’s mental growth, with overwhelming evidence in those who have violent parents and relatives. Failed behaviors leading to unsatisfactory outcomes include , , , which can exert tremendous influence on the personal capability to set up normal relationships like friendship, intimacy as well as family.
    This level of need builds connection with society aspect. The sense of belonging and acknowledgement in the social groups is an essential ingredient to melt into daily routine. The functions of clubs, colleagues, religion, professional organizations, sport teams are targeted at meeting the love and belonging need. Humans need to love and be loved by other groups, both sexually and non-sexually.  In our contemporary world, more and more elders are becoming gradually susceptible to loneliness, , and , which can be attributed to inadequate sense love and belonging.
    4.2.4 Esteem
    Sense of being respected lays a solid foundation, which can be classified into self-esteem and self-respect. People tend to take part in a profession or share hobby to obtain recognition, the activities of which endow the individual a sense of contribution and satisfaction. Inferior self-esteem can be the consequence of psychological imbalances such as , which may put sand in acquiring a higher standard of self-esteem or self-respect.
    Maslow conducted researches on esteem needs from two versions: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem focuses on respect from others which consists of status, recognition, reputation, prestige. The "higher" version proves to be self-respect including strength, competence, mastery, , independence, and freedom. This "higher" version dominates the "lower" version in that it combines an inner competence which is formed through experience.
    4.2.5 Self-actualization
    This level of need demonstrates an individual’s entire potential degree and the accomplishment of the potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to achieve everything that one can, to grow into the most that one can be. Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. Some may interpret it from athletic way, while others may assort to paintings, art crafts or inventions. 
    Maslow also claimed that in spite of the fact that needs of humans had strict guidelines, the hierarchies are closely interrelated rather than distinctively separated. Maslow has developed unshakable faith that in understanding all levels of needs, not only should one achieve the previous needs, but also get a good command of them( 1943).
    4.3 Personal Values and Beliefs of Occupational Therapy
    In the area of occupational therapy for senior adults, the treatment differentiates from other areas, with a focus on maintaining independence and participation in physical activities. Related cases may contain driving issues, activities at home, degraded vision, and  or  (AD). Dealing with driving issues may concern with assessment to decide the security. For older adults’ activities at home, occupational therapy focuses on the monitoring and performance with modern technological methods. Occupational therapy to alter low vision may include special training assignment. For elders suffering from AD, occupational therapy doesn’t try the complete medicine cure, instead maintain basic life, ensure security, improve independence, and encourage retained abilities.
    4.4 Recognizing and Seeking Feedback
    The senior elderly occupy the majority of patients in occupational therapy. At first, they may be estimated by performance and necessities, workplace, hospital or other living and working. The place factor in which the elders devote most of the time in, the concrete content of therapy may be different from one another and possess various benefits. In case of senior elders, the occupational therapy attaches emphasis on the physical and motor abilities of the old, their consciousness of the body and daily activities as well as interaction with the surrounding atmosphere(Christiansen 2007). So, this therapy helps seniors deal with such things successfully. Occupational therapy can also aid them in growing to achieve an individual need level, improving their self-esteem and developing their important social skills.
    4.5 My Preferred Approach to Learning
    Under circumstances of memory loss affairs one is likely to suffer, the occupational therapist will evaluate the severity of this problem and develop an optimal treatment protocol. The related occupational treatment can consist of ensuring accommodation security, maintaining cognitive and memory skills needed to be used to the largest extent, making it possible for this individual to lead a positive life.
    To sum up, occupational therapy takes a whole previous life experience of the patient into consideration, helping the individual to fulfill all the capable things, as well as overcome the post effects of an injury or chronic diseases. It is mostly targeted at elderly groups as they have higher chances to suffer from the listed physical and mental health problems
    5.1 My Understanding of OT at the Beginning
    Occupational Therapy for the Elderly is a treatment combining stimulating physical and mental activity to improve daily performance. Occupational therapists generally work with seniors in separate areas to , , adult day care centers and community . To begin with, a therapist may carry out an evaluation survey to decide whether professional interference for independence is required.
    Principles of occupational therapy may shed light for support and later researches and development of occupational therapy practice, contributing to the formation of special scientific system.
    With the development of modern medical technology, the late life disability rates have represented a steady decline tendency. Prevention of elders’ disability can not only save unnecessary medical expenditure, but also improves basic life qualities of older group. Disability builds the gap between what one may achieve and the surrounding environment(Brownson & Scaffa 2001). Thus the most efficient method to improve this phenomenon is to increase the ability of older group as much as possible, at the same time decrease their need for surrounding facilities. Disability, chronic diseases, pain, loneliness as well as less access to primary care are leading factors that frustrate the older people. Intervention of elder people’s life can start from the period when the disability situation doesn’t appear. Systematic intervention of late life includes evaluation, education, interaction with barriers of likely retaining and settlements.
    Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience 代寫 
    5.2 My Understanding of OT in the End.
    Generally speaking, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is illustrated in the graph of a pyramid, the bottom of which represents the most fundamental need, the tops of which means the need for . Deficiency needs of esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs are the most basic requirement. When not satisfied, there is likely to be no physical indication, leading to anxiety and nervousness(Wahba & Bridwell 1976). The more fundamental the need is, the more desirable the human being can perceive of the specific need.
    Occupational therapy is different from a physical one since it focuses on improving a patient's lifestyle, regardless of the impairments he/she might have. Physical therapy, on the other hand, focuses on helping people recover from their injuries, while every other aspect of their recuperation is commonly handled thorough occupational therapy.
    In case of the elderly and adults, this therapy is usually directed towards a treatment of certain disabilities, regardless whether these take place on a psychological, physical or some other levels. Basically, occupational therapy helps people overcome most of the difficulties their health problems force them to have. Therefore, the benefits of such treatment are invaluable.
     Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience 代寫
    6. Reference
    Portfolio for Volunteer Occupational Therapy Experience 代寫
     Brownson, CA, & Scaffa ,ME, 2001, Occupational therapy in the promotion of health and the prevention of disease and disability statement, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, pp. 656–660.
    Christiansen, CH, 2007, Adolf Meyer Revisited:Connections between Lifestyle, resilience and illness, Journal of Occupational Science, pp.63‐76
    Douglas, FM, 2004, Occupational still matters: A tribute to a pioneer, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, pp. 239.
    Foster, M, 2002, Theoretical Frameworks, Occupational Therapy and Physical Dysfunction, urner, Foster & Johnson.
    Hocking, C, 2004, Making a difference: The romance of occupational therapy, South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, pp. 3-5.
    Kielhofner, G, 2008, Model of Human Occupation: Theory and Application. 4th edn, Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      1943, A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, viewed on 27th May, 2013, <>
    McColl, MA, Law, M, Stewart,D, Doubt,L, Pollack,N & Krupa,T, 2003, Theoretical basis of occupational therapy (2nd Ed), New Jersey, SLACK Incorporated
    Polatajko,H, 2001, The evolution of our occupational perspective: The journey from diversion through therapeutic use to enablement, Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol.68, no.4, pp.203-207.
    Wahba, MA & Bridwell, LG, 1976, Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol.15, no.2, pp. 212–240
    Whiteford, G & Fossey, E, 2002, Occupation: The essential nexus between philosophy, theory and practice, Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, vol.49, no.1, pp.1-2.


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